LFP batteries use lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) as the cathode material alongside a graphite carbon electrode with a metallic backing as the anode. Unlike many cathode materials, LFP is a polyanion compound composed of more than one negatively charged element. Its atoms are arranged in a crystalline structure forming a 3D network of lithium ions compared to the 2D slabs from nickel manganese cobalt.
LFP batteries operate similarly to other lithium-ion batteries, moving between positive and negative electrodes to charge and discharge. However, phosphate is a non-toxic material compared to cobalt oxide or manganese oxide, and LFP batteries are capable of delivering constant voltage at a higher charge cycle.
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