Phosphoric Acid

Concentrated Phosphate Rock Refined to Pure Phosphoric Acid

Source: (Prud’Homme, 2010, de Schroder et. al., 2010)

  • Phosphate bearing rock is crushed and processed to obtain Concentrated Phosphate Rock (25%-41% purity level). Sedimentary Rock (25%-34%). Igneous Rock (38%-41%).
  • Concentrated Phosphate Rock is then processed into medium purity Merchant Grade Phosphoric Acid (MGA) for fertilizer and Animal feed.
  • Merchant Grade Phosphoric Acid (MGA) is then processed into Pure Phosphoric Acid (PPA)
  • Pure Phosphoric Acid (PPA) has a wide ranging number of food and industrial applications.

89%: Merchant Grade Acid (MGA)

8%: Purified Phosphoric Acid (PPA) Industrial Applications

North American Phosphoric Acid Supply is in Decline

Demand for Phosphoric Acid for LFP Battery will Increase Sharply

Source:BM Review estimates

“What a shock – a closer look at the LFP supply chain indicates to us that there may very well be raw material supply chain issues to come for LFP.”

Methods of Producing Phosphoric Acid

✅ Igneous Rock Creates Circular Economy ✅

Only Igneous Phosphate rock can meet the full ESG rigours of the LFP battery industry.

Gypsum produced is non-radioactive and it can be recycled into the circular economy into the agriculture, cement or construction industry.

Moreover, up to 90% of igneous rock feedstock can be converted to LFP grade purified phosphoric acid.

X Sedimentary Rock Creates Gypsum Slag Piles X

The current method of producing phosphoric acid creates large gypsum slag piles with remaining radioactivity. This is not consistent with ESG requirements around LFP grade purified phosphoric acid. Such practice is, in fact, no longer supported in Europe.

Moreover, only a small percentage of sedimentary rock feedstock can be converted to LFP grade purified phosphoric acid at reasonable cost and without ESG incompatible residual waste issues.

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