Igneous vs Sedimentary

Known World Phosphate Deposits

Source: Food and Agriculture Organization of the The United Nations

Active Phosphate Reserves by Country

Known Igneous & Sedimentary Phosphorites

Igneous Vs Sedimentary Phosphorite Comparison

  • Only 5% of world phosphate deposits are of igneous rock type of which 50% are located in Russia.
  • First Phosphate properties consist of Igneous Massif-Type Anorthosite which represent 1% of the world’s phosphate deposits.
  • Igneous anorthosite rock yields the highest purity phosphate devoid of high concentrations of deleterious heavy metals.
  • Igneous Anorthosite based phosphate has the potential to yield the highest purity, ESG-driven, carbon-neutral phosphate for the global LFP battery industry.
Deposit Type Igneous Carbonatite Igneous Massif-Type Anorthosite Sedimentary
Host Rock Carbonatite Massif-Type Anorthosite Upwelling-Related Sedimentary Rocks
Distribution 5% of global deposits 1% of global deposits 95% of global deposits
Shape Of Ore Bodies Veins and Lenses Sheets and Lenses Bedded (stratiform)
Rare of Earth Elements High Low Variable
Deleterious Trace Elements Low Low High
Organic Matter None None High
Phosphate Mineralogy Apatite Apatite Carbonate Fluorapatite
Associated Minerals Calcite, Dolomite, Magnetite Pyroxene, Plagioclase, Ilmenite, Magnetite Quartz, Clay Minerals, Calcite, Dolomite
P2O5 Content ~5 to 15 wt% ~5 to 15 wt% ~8 to 35 wt%
Source Mantle > 50 km depth) Mantle/Crust (~ 30 to 50 km depth) Upwelling-related organic matter
Mineralization Processes High temperature crystallization in magma High temperature crystallization and gravitational settling in magma Phosphate precipitation in accumulating sediment

Source: Dr. Sandeep Banerjee, Postdoctoral Fellow/ Researcher Queen's University

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